She needed more than 246 out of the 492 Lower House votes to prevail and won 297, with 134 against.
Ms Yingluck's government is facing the biggest demonstrations to hit Thailand since the violence of 2010.
She called on anti-government demonstrators to end their street protests, which began in Bangkok on Sunday, and enter talks to avoid confrontation, urging her opponents to agree to join a panel to find a way out of the crisis.
The demonstrators accuse Yingluck of being an illegitimate proxy for her billionaire brother, Thaksin, a populist hero of the rural poor who was ousted in a 2006 military coup.
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