The upper house cleared Mr Kuroda he won approval from the lower house on Thursday.
Mr Kuroda, 68, is expected to push for monetary stimulus to boost growth in the world's third-largest economy.
He has vowed to "do whatever it takes" to achieve Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe's ambitious two percent inflation target.
Japan has seen nearly 20 years of deflation.
The upper house also voted to approve the appointment of Kikuo Iwata and Hiroshi Nakaso as deputies to Mr Kuroda, who is leaving his current job as president of the Asian Development Bank.
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